Direction "Geoinformatics" is provided with authentic data through the network of partners that are connected to WDC by bilateral agreements about partnership and scientific exchange. Most of the partners are academic establishments of NAS of Ukraine and RAS.

Solid-earth physics

Supervised by Institute of Geophysics of NAS of Ukraine and
Scientific Centre for Aerospace Research of the Earth of NAS of Ukraine.

Electrical Exploration

Electrical Conductors in Earth Crust Subsoil and Upper Earth Mantle. Ukrainian Shield.

In the subsoils of Earth crust a sufficient amount of abnormalities of high electric conductivity were revealed, which are defined by the characteristic features – length (hundreds and thousands of kilometers), depth of cover bedding (10-15 km). Some abnormal structures have a propensity for zones of present tectonic activity, areas of lithosphere plates’ subduction, others – for joint zones between blocks inside crystal boards. One more feature is the fact that zones of high electric conductivity are often accompanied with deposits of zinc, lead, gold and copper (Australia, New Zealand), diamonds (Africa, North America).

Some of them are stretched on thousands of kilometers, regional and interregional high-conductive structures, revealed on the majority of continents, can be result of geodynamic processes and limits of regions with their different displays. A few examples of this phenomenon can be given.

Abnormality of electric conductivity in Australia begins in the area of Carpentaria bay and is stretched into the depth of the continent for the length more than 1000 km. High electric conductivity’s body was found at the depth of 10 km under basic sediments of Eromang basin. This structure is also fixed in gravitation field and according to data of aeromagnetic researches and is considered by scientists as inner plate’s joint. As for the seismic materials, it acts as the main zone of sharp contrast of the seismic velocities, which is stretched deeply to the mantle. There exists a hypothesis that main Australian abnormalities of electric conductivity - Carpenthariam South-Eastern Queensland and Flieders correspond to the continental joint and are important links in the continent formation. This block is known by its deposits of zinc, lead, gold and copper.

Geographical correspondence of high electric conductivity abnormality in the crust subsoils and the highest gradient of seismic waves’ velocity are fixed not only in this region, but also in the south of Australia.

Within the limits of Central plains of North America (Southern part of North-American platform) abnormality of high electric conductivity is stretched from the East, Hudson Bay, to the US territory and is stretched on more than 2000 km. This abnormality may be longer and wider, than it is shown on the maps. Depth of abnormal body bedding is 10 km. There exists an assumption that it appeared due to the presence of graphite shales and it is possible that it controls the edge of submerged tectonic plate. Alan Johns called it “huge and mysterious structure of continental scale, revealed as a result of electromagnetic induction researches”.

Through the southern Scotland area of high electric conductivity is stretched on H=4-12 km, which correlates with negative gravitational Buge abnormality.

In Central Africa with the help of electromagnetic researches in the Earth crust in the region of Kenyan reef an area of high electric conductivity with the upper limit of H=25 km was revealed.

Analysis shows that the majority of transcontinental crust abnormalities of high electric conductivity correspond to the subduction areas, which last during the previous 120 mln of years. Such correlation is observed on both American continents, in Australia and Africa.

Numerous stretched areas of high electric conductivity of the Eurasian continent also correspond to the subduction areas, for instance, Carpathian.

In alpine structures abnormality of West Carpathians is timed to the joint area of Flish Carpathians and Inner covers, including Pennine and Marmaros zones.

Abnormality of South Carpathians has a propensity for the joint zone of the Inner covers, which divide Pannonia and Transylvania, and Southern Carpathians, bit not to the Precarpathians deflection.

Chernivetsko-Korosten abnormality is galvanically connected with Flish zone of Eastern Carpathians and Marmaros belt.

Western branches of the abnormality are situated in the area of deep Podil rupture and joint of the South-Western SEP edge with Scythian plate.

Geoelectrical model doesn’t always correspond to the surface geology. Pennine and Marmaros belt as well as Flish Carpathians are not an infinite zone of high electric conductivity in the Earth crust. Abnormality of the Precambrian UB is wedged into the alpine Carpathians.

Correlation of the Transeuropean seam area with series of high electric conductivity abnormalities in the Earth crust of Eastern Carpathians and Dobruja is worth special mentioning.

But in Eurasia there exist local abnormalities, which are not connected with areas of modern subduction. They are submeridional high electric conductivity abnormalities in the Earth crust: Kirovograd and Ural. Kirovograd abnormality is stretched to the North in the form of Ladog and Chudskoi abnormalities and can be stretched to the Scandinavian Peninsula.

Today huge experimental material is collected, which showed the fact that as far as geoelectrical aspect is concerned, both Earth crust and upper mantle on the territory of Ukraine are heterogeneous.


Three-dimensional geoelectrical models of the Earth crust and upper mantle of the Ukrainian board

1 – High electric resistance block; 2 – subvertical zones of high electric conductivity, which have galvanic connection with surface sediments; High electric conductivity abnormalities: I – Volyn, II – Korosten, III – Chernivtsi-Korosten, IV – Kirovograd, V – Preasov, VI – Donbass.


S.M. Kulik and T.K. Burachtovych at their time created 2D and quasi-3D deep geoelectrical models of the earth crust and upper mantle of the UB and its slopes, which include zones with abnormally low values of electric resistance: Korosten (depth of object bedding is H=15 km, total lengthwise electric conductivity of the object is S=500cm), Chernivtsi-Korosten (Н=15 km, S=1000 sm; Н=70 km, S=2000 m), Gaivoron-Dobrovelychkivska (Н=0,1 km, S=2000 sm), Kirovograd (Н=10 – 25 km, S=100 – 20 000 sm), Preasov (Н=1 – 2 km, S=2000 sm), Volyn (Н=2,5 km, S=1000 sm), Donbass (Н=2 km, S=500 – 20 000 sm; Н=10 km, S=1000 – 10 000 sm). Thee different in configuration and geoelectrical parameters areas of high electric conductivity in the earth crust and mantle were basis for the creation of the first 3D models.

Distribution of the specific electric resistance of the surface sediments was found by the values of the lengthwise electric conductivity and the capacity of sedimentary depth. Electric conductivity of the surface sediments has to correlate naturally with the stretch of the main sedimentary structures. But on the territory of Ukraine this regularity is marked only for Dnieper-Donetsk (S>2000 sm), Prychernomorska (S up to 1000 sm) vugs and structure of the crystal plate (0.5<S>100 sm). At the same time surface electric conductivity of the Donetsk basin, where capacity of the sedimentary laminations can reach 10 km, doesn’t exceed 300 sm.

Value of the specific electric resistance of the UB crystal rocks in this research is assumed to be 1000 Ohm?m, against which background abnormalities of both high and low electric conductivity were singled out.

Some stretched areas of high electric conductivity, which have galvanic connection with conductive surface formations, spacely correlate with separate parts of deep intermegablock rupture zones – Talnov, Pervomaisk, West-Ingulets, Kryvorizko-Kremenchutskyi and some other ruptures of other rank. Because of the fact that these structures of electric conductivity are singled out only by the MT sounding without use of profiling, penetration depth and slope angle are very hard to estimate with the collection of experimental data.

Characteristic feature of the Serednyoprydniprovsky megablock and the part of Orihovo-Pavlogradsky seam zones are high values of the imaginary specific electric resistance, which reach several thousands Ohm*m against the background of the average value of 1000 Ohm*m for the whole UB. Magnetotelluric profiles for the period of 2500 seconds are characterized by the only ascendant branches, which can be explained by the induction currents flow around high resistance block along the more electroconductive peripheric parts. As a result of researches high resistance block was revealed, where isolator’s capacity is estimated to be 10-20 km, at the bigger depths fragments of Kirovograd electric conductivity abnormality are observed.

On the western slope of UB within the depths’ interval of 2.5-6 km Volyn electric conductivity abnormality is situated, which has complicated space outline and is characterized by the specific electric resistance value of ρ=10 Ом?м.

At the North-Western part of the board on the border of Volyn and Rosyn megabloks in the Earth crust at the depth between 15 and 30 km Korosten electric conductivity abnormality is situated. Average value of the specific resistance ρ is equal to 30 Ohm*m. Spacely this structure correlates with Korosten pluton.

At the west of the board within the same depth interval Chernivtsi-Korosten electric conductivity abnormality was revealed, which is characterized by big square and complicated structure. Abnormality part with ρ=5 Оhm*m is situated within the limits of Rosyn and Podil megabloks at depths between 15 and 30 km and contains high resistance object at 1000 Ohm*m. Western part of this structure, which has average specific resistance of 20 Ohm*m, exceeds the limits of UB and stretches in two directions – to the South and to the Southern East alongside the Podil rupture zone up to Golovan seam zone. Chernivtsi-Korosten abnormality contains at its South-East a branch, which is characterized by the lowest resistance – about 1 Ohm*m within the interval of 3 to 30 km. This branch is situated in the area of Rosyn, Bug megablocks and Golovan seam zone joint.

The first signs of the widely-known Kirovograd electric conductivity abnormality on the UB slopes appear beginning from the depth of 10 km. The structure is completely situated in the earth crust of the UB central part and stretches far from its limits to the North into the Voronezh massive and to the south into Prychernomorska vug. In the north of Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zone, UB slope and DDZ at the depths of 10-13 km two zones are singled out: the first one – in the form of S-shaped abnormality ρ=1 Оhm*m, which is situated within the space between Kryvorizko-Kremenchutska and West-Inguletska rupture zones; the second one – in the G-shaped form with the intensity of ρ=30 Оhm*m within the DDZ limits.

At the depths of 13-17 km its form and intensity doesn’t practically change. Only the middle part of the S-shaped abnormality disappears. Within the interval of 17-20 km the first abnormal zone shortens and it can be traced only in the form of square, connected with the northern part of West-Inguletska rupture zone, which borders with UB edge and DDZ. At the South of Kirovograd abnormality, beginning from the depth of 10 km, complicated sublatitudinal zone is singled out, which is already situated within the area of Prychernomorska vug. The most electroconductive parts with ρ=5 Оhm*m are situated in the area of Pervomaisk and Kryvorizko-Kremenchutska rupture zones. It should be mentioned that separate parts of these two rupture zones are traced as electroconductive at different depths. If within the UB limits Pervomaisk rupture zone corresponds to the conductor from the surface, then within the limits of Prychernomorska vug it is characterized by high electric conductivity only at depths beginning from 10 km. Between the Southern and Northern UB slopes there exists a difference in occurrence of electroconductive abnormalities at different depths. If at the Northern slope high electroconductivity disappears at 20 km, at the South abnormality exists at these depths, although in less special sizes.

Character of specific electric resistance distribution within the limits of Kirovograd abnormality changes greatly at the depths of 20-25 km. Hear full-featured abnormality is fixed in the form of almost isometric flat figure with two outlines of different values of the specific resistance: internal with ρ=1 Оhm*m and external with ρ=5 Оhm*m. Internal outline is at the edge of Ingulsk megablock and Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zone practically along all its length within the UB. This structure covers also South-Eastern part of Korsun-Novomyrgorodskyi pluton. External outline of high electric conductivity abnormality contains almost all the Eastern part of Ingulsk megablock, Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zone and western part of the Serednyoprydniprovskyi UB megablock.

High electric conductivity (ρ=5 Оhm*m), which is mostly revealed in the Kirovograd abnormality at the depth interval of 25-30 km. It is stretched from south to north-east flat figure, which completely covers the space of Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zone, eastern part of Ingulsk megablock and eastern part of Korsun-Novomyrgorodskyi pluton. This whole deep structure within the limits of Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zone continues to the north-east to DDZ and further to the North. At the south of UB it changes its stretch into sublatitudinal and covers a part of Serednyoprydniprovskyi UB megablock and northern part of Prychernomorska vug. Further to the south abnormality extends alongside Pervomaisk ruptures zone.

At the east of the UB at depth of 2.5 km the covering of Preasov abnormality is fixed, which almost completely covers East-Preasov massive. In the subsurface of earth crust of the Preasov UB megablock within the depth interval of 2 to 20 km high electroconductivity zone with specific resistance of 50-100 Ohm*m is situated. It is most probable that Preasov geoelectrical structure in its upper part at the depths of 2 to 10 km is galvanically connected with Donbass high electroconductivity abnormality.

High electroconductivity abnormalities penetrate all megablocks and UB seam zones. They are situated at different depths, beginning from surface up to crust lower strata (more than 30 km) and are characterized by the specific electric resistance from 1 to 100 Ohm*m.

UB mantle is not uniform by the geoelectrical parameters. In the south-western part conductor at the depth interval of 70-120 km with specific resistance of 25 Ohm*m was revealed, while in the UB eastern part mantle is characterized by the comparatively high electric resistance of approximately 1000 Ohm*m.

Thus, the main result of geoelectrical research, which is based on the use of natural source of electromagnetic energy, is the special natural occurrence, observed in the subsurface of UB earth crust – high electric conductivity, which is concentrated in the separate parts of the earth crust and upper mantle and forms zones of different intensity and depth of the bedding. These zones differently characterize separate geological regions.

Subvertical zones of high electric conductivity correlate with intermegablock UB ruptures. The majority of such objects are in Golovanov and Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zones. Electric conductivity abnormalities of this type may testify about high penetration for fluids of seam zones in the process of their formation and great graphitization of the intergrain space. As opposed to this, Orihovo-Pavlogradska seam zone is characterized by big values of specific electric resistance.

Within the limits of megablocks – Podil, Bug, Ingulsk, Serednyoprydniprovskyi subvertical electroconductive zones are also observed. They are characterized by the shorter length and correlate with deep ruptures of the second rank.

At the north-west of UB I.B. Scherbakov assume presence of the fourth seam zone. This structure is also characterized by the high electric conductivity abnormality – Volyn. But the electroconductive object is not subvertical structure and is not a part of any deep rupture.

Three parts can be singled out in geoelectrical connection in the UB: western, central and eastern. Western parts include Volyn, Podil, Rosyn, and Bug megablocks. Central part contains Ingulsk megablock, Golovan and Ingulets-Kryvorizka seam zones. Eastern part – Serednyoprydniprovskyi megablock, Orihovo-Pavlogradska seam zone and, probably, Preasov megablock. Western part is characterized by low resistance of the earth crust rocks in comparison with eastern one. This can testify about abnormally low penetration of the earth crust rocks of the eastern part. Central part is defined by the high electric conductivity along the whole crust cut and this testifies both about high penetration of paleoproterozoic block rocks.

Characteristic feature of the western part of the board is the presence of conductor at the depth of more than 70 km. Similar geoelectric picture is observed in archaic Slave craton in the North-Western territories of Canada, where in the central part of the craton sharp reduction of electroresistance at the depth from 80 to 100 km (r = 30 Ohm*m) is revealed. Geophysical anomaly coincides with geochemical anomaly (based on Cr-pyrop chemistry), which is caused by harzburgite layer depleting. Negative Buge abnormality with spatial wave length of about 100 km that correlates with the main kimberlite field and geoelectric abnormality is also defined in here.

It is necessary to underline connection between different deep electroconductivity anomalies (Korosten, Kirovograd, Preasov) with separate parts of Korosten, Korsun-Novomirgorodskiy and East-Preasov massives. Within the UB Kherson-Smolensk the transregional tectonic seam coincides with the western branch of deep Kirovograd abnormality, while transregional tectonic Donetsk-Bryansk seam is crossed by different electroconductivity abnormalities - Preazov and Donbass.

Approximately 95 % of Antarctica's surface is covered in ice layer with capacity of 1-3 km. But this continent is still too little studied in geological sense, though Antarctica is the important element of Cainozoic activization and occupies essential position at studying of processes which occurred before formation of stable lithosphere cratons.

Under the conditions of polar areas sources of induction field differ essentially from the model of flat electromagnetic wave, for example, "bay". Nevertheless, the review shows, that it is possible to obtain high-quality MT sounding and GVP data for studying both the earth crust and mantle even under such circumstances.

Italian scientists conducted MW researches, which should solve the problems connected with continental rifting. Induction vectors which can answer a conductor along coast and Transantarctic Mountains were obtained, which has probably been caused by partial fusion of breeds of the upper mantle.

Antarctic kept an appreciable place in geological history of southern hemisphere. Testimony of structure and geological structure of continent were and are essential for acknowledgement or refutation of Gondvani's concept. Tectonic reconstruction and construction of tectonic Gondvani's map before fragmentation (approximately 150 million years, average mesozoic) are well documented, but are still too inconsistent. Australia and Antarctica were uniform in late mesozoic era, and they were divided only about 50 million years ago.

Alongside Rose orogen the border of sharp change in the seismic speeds in the upper Antarctic mantle passes. Eastern part of Antarctic preserves craton-like structure up to the depths of 250 km. The highest velocities are revealed around Enderby Land, where samples of old rocks were found, and low velocities are localised along active tectonic zones, which surround the continent. Low speeds of the western part of Transantarctic Mountains can characterise rift zone, similar to the African one.

The interesting fact consists in the electroconductive abnormality placing in relation to the revealed oregon area. There is an assumption of electroconductive abnormality existence in the earth crust of Antarctica in the area of Transantarctic Mountains.

The probability of such assumption increases if we consider the message of the Italian scientists about МW research in the region of Northern Victoria land, where at 20-50 km by the preliminary data the taken area of high electroconductivity is revealed, and F.Vannameker's remarkable review, written together with colleagues, about MT sounding near the South Pole, where the conductive layer at depth of about 30 km is revealed.

Geophysical investigation of holes

Geophysical investigation of holes


Calculation of global thermal current

Calculation of global thermal current in text format:


Publications for geothermometry


Remote Geothermal Method

Presentation of Remote Geothermal Method.

Presentation in MS Power Point format

Thermal stream of Antarctic


Format Description of Heat Flow Data Set

Thermal stream of Arctic

Heat Flow on Arctic

Format Description of Heat Flow Data Set


Gravimetrical measurings (publications) of Antarctic

Gravimetrical measurings of Arctic


Abnormal gravitation field. Abnormal density


Abnormal gravitational field of the territory of Ukraine

Central part of Ukraine on the Ukrainian Shield

Abnormal gravitational field

Abnormal gravitational field. Abnormal Earth crust and upper mantle thickness.

Earth gravitational field or field of gravity force – is a force field caused by Earth gravity and centrifugal force as a result of the Earth axial rotation. It is conventionally divided into abnormal and basic-normal parts, calculated according to the distribution formulae of acceleration of normal gravity. Abnormal part of field is considerably smaller in magnitude, has complicated structure and reflects Earth form characteristics and its subsoil inhomogeneity. On a map abnormal gravitational field structure is shown by the similar size lines of its values, which are called isoanomalous lines.

Abnormal gravitational field changes in wide ranges in connection with great diversity of Earth crust and upper mantle material thickness distribution along the lateral when natural gradient stratified increasing at the same time with depth; in some regions thickness inhomogenuities take place in the upper mantle also. Gravitational field morphology and intensity visually in the first place reflect thickness distribution characteristics in the subsurface Earth crust part.

In the Western Ukraine (Precarpathian bending), where sedimentary strata is thick and bounder crust-mantle (or the Mokhorovichich discontinuity) is immersed greatly, minimal magnitude of the field in Bouguer reduction (up to -100mGal). To the West from Carpathians Moho discontinuity rises sharply, and field becomes positive (up to +30 mGal). In the north-western part of the territory, where the sediment thickness reaches 1-3 km, the field is weakly negative (about -10-20mGal).

Central part of Ukraine is situated on the Ukrainian Shield. Field level there is weakly positive. And granitic massifs are characterized by the subzero field (except anomaly in -30mGal over the massif in the region of Novoukrainka-Kirovohrad), and basic materials and granulites are characterized by positive field magnitude, the most intensive of which is (higher than +60 mGal) are observed in the region of Golovanivsk. On the south East of the Shield great positive anomalies are made by the ferruginous structures in the regions of Kryvyi Rih, Dnipropetrovs’k, Nikopol’, Zaporizhzhia, Melitopol’, Mariupol’.
In the Eastern part of Ukraine the Dniprovs’ko-Donets’kyi avlakogene (DDA) is situated. The field there depends on correlation of sedimentary strata effects and basic Devonian material implanted along the axis of the avlakogene. In general, between the depressions due to the sedimentary strata thickness decreasing lifting of the Moho discontinuity is observed. High field is observed in Donbass (higher than +40mGal), where thick sedimentary strata materials are very metamorphized and have high thickness. From the North DDA is characterized by the minimal field, that is caused by light sedimentary strata, and the local intensive minimums in the regions of Sieverodonets’k (-40 mGal), Svatove, Shevchenkove, Okhtyrka are caused by the sole material low thickness.
On the South, in Crimea, very high field is observed, which maximum (over than +150mGal) is situated in the Crimean Mountains. Earth crust there usually has the basic structure and there might be ultrabasic materials.
In the tectonically active structures (Carpathian, Donbass, Crimea) in gravitational field effects of mantle material thickness decrease, caused by high temperature influence.

Gravity isoanomalies (mGal)

The connection between structure characteristics and Earth crust substantial structure (upper mantle in some regions) and gravitational field is in most cases inverse. That is why features of abnormal Earth crust and upper mantle thickness distribution were discovered only with the help of methodology and technology of gradient stratified three-dimensional deep structure gravitational modeling worked out in Ukraine, which is based on rapid openings, correlation dependences r=f (Vp) for crystalline materials, which are based on experiments under PT conditions of deep structures subject to material substantial structure specific amendments, studying of theoretical models of different types of blocks, modern software.
Due to that, Earth crust and upper mantle abnormal thickness areas are singled out and regularities in its distribution were established. It was found out that due to isostatic compensation tendency of the separate blocks and its groups heavier blocks has immersing of the Earth crust bottom, and the lighter ones – lifting of the Moho surface. That is, on the Ukrainian Shield the Golovanivs’k structure, separate blocks on Volhynia-Podolya and in other regions have Earth crust raised thickness when bending, and granitoid blocks (Kirovohrad, Korosten’ and others) are characterized by the material lightened thickness and lifting of the Moho bounder.
By results of gravitational modeling areas of upper mantle materials with raised thickness under the DDA, Crimea, Precarpathian, and in Transcarpathian region- area of upper mantle material with lightened thickness are predicted.

Authors: V. I. Starostenko, S.S Krasovsky

Catalogue of gravity pole measurements. Publications.

Earth gravity and anomalys maps. Publications.

Gravity measurings of Antarctic

During the season works of the 9th (2004) and 10th (2005) Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions workers of the Institute of geophysics NASU on the islands of Argentine archipelago measuring of the gravitational field at 17 points were conducted. Scheme of the observation points placing is given in fig. 1. British Antarctic Service has already performed works on the creation of bearing gravimetric points’ network, which is situated on the area with coordinates between southern latitudes of 51 and 71 degrees (Renner, 1982). In the area, which borders station “Academic Vernadsky” there are 16 bearing gravimetric points, two of which are situated on Galindez Island. All measuring were performed with one of them (VS01) taking into account, where gravitation force angle is 982339,6 mGal (Renner, 1982). Results of the field observations are given in table 1. Gravitation force abnormalities are obtained through the use of International formula of the normal Earth field 1930 with Potsdam system’s amendment. Map of abnormalities in the free air (Δgс.в.) of the Argentine islands region is given in fig.1. Value of Δgс.в., which were obtained as a result of field works, absolutely fall in with regional field of the research region, which confirms the high quality of these works.

Fig. 1. Abnormalities in the free air of the Argentine islands, isolines in mGal.
1 – placing of the observation points (О.М.Rusakov, I.B.Makarenko, S.S.Chulkov).
Results of the field gravimetric observations of the 9th and 10th Antarctic expeditions.

Point’s name


Geographical coordinates
Absolute value, mGal
Height (m)

Abnormality in the free air



Bouguer abnormality


(О.М.Rusakov, I.B.Makarenko, S.S.Chulkov)

Solving gravimetrics and magnetometrics intepretation task.

Approximational approach has been used in practice of interpretational works for a long time already. Let us pay attention to some sides of this important and many-sided question.

The first one. It is a question of information basis replacement - about transition from fields' elements maps to analytical approximation of these elements. Initial gravitational or the magnetic field is replaced with a field of some auxiliary model. The interpreter receives the whole set of geophysical fields. It essentially raises the level of qualitative interpretation.

In the discussed works it is possible to create an auxiliary model in such a way, that along with the analytical description of the initial field, the interpreter receives geometrical characteristics of abnormal weights distribution (fig. 1). Otherwise the problem becomes more complicated. It becomes nonlinear. The steady mathematical apparatus of such problems decision was developed.

The second one. Problems of geological interpretation are often solved with the help of trial-and-error method. At the first stage the interpreter creates the hypothetical geological model, whose weights could create the needed abnormal field. Such geological model should be parametrized. It means that some sequence of parameters with numerical values, which define geometrical features of the model, density or magnetic characteristics of weights, is established. There is a possibility to receive a theoretical field which is conditioned by weights of geological model. The theoretical field is compared with the initial. Now the problem consists in finding new numerical values of model parameters, which minimise the divergence of compared fields.

Thus, interpretational problem is always solved in model class, fixed beforehand. It is possible to allocate works, which are devoted to the general questions of the theory and practice of gravimetric and magnitometric fields’ interpretation.

In some works cycle problems of analytical model of initial abnormal field creation are considered (fig. 2).

Results of the inverse problems solution in various model classes are considered. These are inverse problems for contact surfaces. Here it is necessary to divide both two-dimensional problems, and problems in which by the abnormal field the relief of interface of geological formations division is restored.

Solution series of return problems is given, if the abnormal field is caused by star objects or bodies of L.N.Sretenskiy class. In this class the average horizontal plane is allocated and the configuration of body cover and its sole is defined. The solution of problems from one class allows to define change of density or magnetisation of rocks which are placed in the fixed horizontal layer.

Main results are published in periodical scientific journals. Mainly, they are NASU Reports; Earth physics, Moscow: Ed. RAS; Geophysical magazine. Kiev: Ed. NASU; Geoinformatics. Kiev: Ed. NASU.

Fig. 1. Inverse gravimetric problem solution for two contact surfaces by the variation field of gravitation force.

Bulah E.G.

Three-dimensional closeness model of the earth's crust of western outskirts of the Antarctic peninsula.

Magnetic Earth Field. Magnetic Exploration

Abnormal magnetic field

Abnormal magnetic field. Regional magnetic anomalies

During the last years the abnormal magnetic field has been successfully used for the construction of non-uniformly scaled solid models, the geological environment, which is also an integral part of the estimation of perspectivity of geological structures on different minerals.

The magnetic or geomagnetic field, is a force field caused by electromagnetic processes in a kernel of the Earth (main, or a normal field), in the top layers of the ionosphere (a variation of a geomagnetic field) and magnetisation of earth crust materials. The former factor forms an abnormal magnetic field which displays presence of materials with different concentration of magnetic minerals in earth crust. The most abnormal magnetic field on the territory of Ukraine is represented on NAU map "the Abnormal magnetic field". It is received by an exception of the variations connected with ionospheric processes, and, a so-called, normal field from intensity of the general geomagnetic field. The normal field has no exact analytical image and consequently has several approximating models, one of which is represented on NAU map "the Normal magnetic field".

The abnormal magnetic field, which is found on the territory of Ukraine is differentiated greatly and consists of the regional and local components, which differ in the lateral dimensions of anomalies and the depth of their sources. Regional field component, represented on the map "Regional magnetic anomalies" is conditioned by the heterogeneity of structure of the lower part of earth crust and a relief of the magnetoactive layer bottom, which can be identified with an earth crust bottom (Мохоровічич section) or with an isothermal surface of Curie temperature magnetite as the main carrier of materials' magnetism. It displays regional features of the big geostructures, and particularly of separate blocks of the Ukrainian sheet and the imposed trenches of a platform part of territory, border of the East European platform and heterogeneity of earth crust within Mountainous Crimea and Carpathians. Local component of an abnormal magnetic field is influence of magnetised materials of the top part of the crust and displays its composition and a structure. Use of local magnetic anomalies in the search purposes has begun in Ukraine more than 100 years ago with opening and the further research of Krivorozhsky iron-ore deposit. Now this component of a magnetic field is used as one of the reliable information sources during geological mapping of materials, studying of fold and explosive tectonics, tectonic zoning, and together with the regional component and other geophysical data - for studying of correlations between near-surface and deep lithospheric structures. The former is an important factor in the development of searching criteria for the different types of minerals, including oil-and-gas. From this point of view special value acquires tracing according to abnormal magnetic field data of the so-called through faults and a trance of regional tectonic zones, which are often enough zones of activization and concentration of minerals.

During the last years the abnormal magnetic field has been successfully used for the construction of non-uniformly scaled solid models, the geological environment, which is also an integral part of the estimation of perspectivity of geological structures on different minerals.


General conclusions concerning conducted research.

  1. The construction technique of the maps, displaying abnormal magnetic field (?Т)а, its regional (?Т)а.reg and local (?Т)а.loc. components and module T was developed.
  2. The new estimation criterion of the terrestrial magnetic field storminess was offered, which can be used in the study of the geomagnetic field's secular course and its ecological aspect.
  3. Maps of abnormal magnetic field (?Т)а, its regional (?Т)а.reg and local (?Т)а.loc. components, module T, storminess ?D and ecological storminess ?Decol foer the territory of Ukrain were worked out.
  4. Maps of the geomagnetic field’s regional component (?Т)а.reg., storminess ?D and ecological storminess ?Decol for the East-European platform were created.

Natural conditions and natural resources. Geophysical fields

Physical fields that were caused or changed with planet natural environment called geophysical fields (GF). GF change and distribution in time and space depend on resources availability and power and on natural environment characteristics structure and its dynamics under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors as well. It is important to know the present condition and change nature of GF for understanding of natural processes, that influence the people’s life and country economics, for long-timed socio-economic planning, rational earth usage, task-oriented minerals seeking and dangerous processes prediction.

Gravitational field of the Earth or field of gravity force is the field caused by gravity force and centrifugal force, that was entailed Earth axial rotation. It is conventionally divided into abnormal and normal. Abnormal gravitational field (AGF) represents Earth form and its subsoil structure characteristics. AGF changes in the wide range on the territory of Ukraine, thatia connected with characteristics of Earth crust material and upper mantle thickness. On the atlas map the AGF distribution is showed with the lines of the similar values of its quantity, that is called isoanomaly.

On the base of gravitational modeling of the schistose inhomogeneous three dimensional deep structures with the usage of data about abnormal gravitational field, deep seismic sounding data (DSS), experimental correlate dependences between specific thickness and seismic-wave propagation under the conditions of different temperatures and tenses considering material constitution amendments was created a map of abnormal Earth crust and upper mantle thickness. Due to the tendency to isostatic equilibrium of separate blocks and its complexes the bottom of the Earth crust immerses under heavier blocks and rises under lighter ones.

Thermal field also gives the important information about structure and dynamics of our planet. Thermal condition of the Earth crust is characterized by thermal flow thickness that comes from the Earth subsoil and dissipates from its surface and by temperature change depending on depth.

The main part in formation of the thermal flow plays: the long-living radioelements’ (uranium, thorium, potassium) break-up energy, the maximal concentration of which is observed in the Earth crust materials, primary Earth energy and the energy of the physicochemical processes that take place in its subsoil. The important part in positive geothermal anomalies formation plays also thermal conduction conditions that significantly change depending on depth and according to lateral. The leading part in positive geothermal anomalies formation plays active tectonic and magmatic processes that is attended by release of the great amount of heat.

Thermal flow thickness – is a quantity of heat that is released from subsoil to surface per time unit on area unit. It is measured in mW/m2 and is defined as the result of multiplication of the geothermal gradient in the definite depth interval and the material thermal conductivity of this interval. On the territory of Ukraine the thermal flow thickness changes from 25-30 mW/m2 to 100-110 mW/m2. Temperatures on the depth of 1 km changes from 20 to 70oC, and on the depth of 3 km – from 40 to 135oС. Thermal flow distribution is closely connected with geological development characteristics or the regions and its tectonics.

Deep thermal flow (DTF) is defined as observed thermal flow corrected considering numerous nearsurface influences: paleoclimate, groundwater move with vertical component, geological structures, that cause out-of-level bedding of the distribution surfaces with different thermal conductivity, young overthrusts, conglomeration of young sediments etc. DTF map shows the distribution of its background (35-50 mW/m2) and abnormal (60-130mW/m2) values on the territory of Ukraine.

Earth thermal energy is a geoenergy resource. The map given in the atlas (map of geoenergy resources thickness in tones of conditional fuel on square meter that can be mined with water geocirculate system with the carrier temperature not less than 60oC and its returning to the subsoil with T ~ 20oC) was made on the base of DTF data. General geoenergy resources of Ukraine (present time defined) approximately 20 times exceed all the reserves of fuel minerals on its territory. They reach 10 t c.f/m2 on some areas, that exceeds reserves that can be mined from the big oil or gas field. Geoenergy resources suitable for practical usage by steam getting (electric power) without additional heating are investigated only in Transcarpathia and not very limited territories of Crimea.
Magnetic or geomagnetic field is geophysical force field caused by electromagnetic processes in the Earth core (main or normal field), in upper ionosphere (geomagnetic field variation) and Earth crust material magnetization. Last factor forms abnormal magnetic field that shows availability of the materials with different concentration of magnetic minerals in the Earth crust. It is defined by excluding normal field intensity and its variations from general geomagnetic field intensity. Normal field does not have exact analytical image. Several approximate models are used for its description, one of which is in the atlas.

Abnormal magnetic field of the territory of Ukraine is very differentiated and consist of regional and local components which differ by diametrical anomaly sizes and source placing depth.

Regional field component showed on the map “Long waved magnetic anomalies” is provided by inhomogeneous structure of the Earth crust lower part and the relief of magnetoactive layer bottom, that can be equaled to Earth crust bottom (Mokhorovichich discontinuity) or to isothermal surface Curie temperature magnetite – the main carrier of materials’ magnetism. It reflects regional characteristics of the big geostructure.

Local abnormal field component is formed under the influence of magnetized materials of upper Earth crust part and represents its structure. This magnetic field component is used as one of the important information sources for geological material mapping, fold and disjunctive tectonics, tectonic zoning study and in complex with regional component and other geophysical data – for studying surface and deep lithosphere structure correlations, for making non-uniformly scaled three-dimensional models of geological environment, that are used when geologize geological structures to find different materials.

Magnetotelluric Earth field is a natural electromagnetic field, caused current system. This field is one of the important source of knowledge about present geological structure, tectonic processes, geodynamics and fluid rate of Earth crust and mantle. Material electrical properties are closely connected with temperature and fluid subsoil rates, mineral chemical composition, consisting of C, S, Fe and other metals, juvenile waters mineralization level, available melt of crust and mantle materials etc. On the base of observed magnetotelluric field analysis using the methods of film and two-dimensional finite difference electromagnetic fields modeling the given in atlas maps “Earth crust electroconductivity” and “Upper mantle electroconducivity” in the siemens (S) – units of conductivity were made. Electroconductivity anomalies are distinguished above “normal” generalized Eastern Europe geoelectrical section, that characterized by specific electric resistance (in ohm.m): 1000, 600, 250, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 1, 0.1 – in the geological environment layers with power (in km): 160, 40, 50, 70, 80, 100, 100, 160, 200, ?. Value of longitudinal electroconductivity of the environment film was taken as 10cm.

For studying deep Earth structure: geometry and main tectonic bounder location, physical parameters distribution of geological environment etc – another type of GF is used widely – seismic field. It is observed in the form of mechanical oscillations on the soil surface or in mines, caves, adits, boreholes. Oscillations are generated by seismic waves (longitudinal, diametrical, surface, channel), that propagate from the source fading, reflecting, refracting and reradiating in other types on geological environment inhomogeneities. Depending on source seismic field can be natural or anthropogenic.

Studying of anthropogenic seismic fields that were by special explosions or by Vibroseis generated and observed along geologic profiles, allowed getting unique data about Earth structure, that are used for minerals searching and solving other geological-geophysical problems. There are Earth crust and lithosphere sections through the main tectonic structures on the territory of Ukraine in the atlas.

  1. Observations on the deep seismic sounding (DSS) geotraverse “Holovanivs’k – Kirovohrad - Taganrog”, that crosses in latitudinal way Eastern and Central parts of Ukrainian board, were made according to the uninterrupted profiling method using the mutually connected travel- time curves of the main waves. This model shows velocity properties and deep structure of the Archean-Proterozoic parts of the board.
  2. Geotraverse “Black Sea – Baltic Sea” on the territory of Ukraine has the 900 km length. It crosses Paleozoic Skythian plate and Precambrian Ukrainian board. Velocity model was made on the base of two-dimensional figure wave field modeling, that was taken by DSS method.
  3. DSS profile “Poltava- Sverdlovsk” goes along Dnipro-Donets’k avlakogen. DSS results was taken and interpreted by the big staff of Ukrainian geologists and geophysicians.
  4. Deep seismic researches on the profile “Berehovo – Dolyna – Vyshnevets’ – Shepetivka - Chernigiv” showed the tectonic structure of different age and genesis: Transcarpathian Mesozoic – Palaeogene bending, Carpathia, that are one of the main European Alpine orogenes and Archean-earlyProterozoic Ukrainian board.
  5. DSS profile “Putyvl’-Kryvyi Rih” join the ultradeep well UDW-8 and 9. In its Southern part it goes along Kryvoriz’ko-Kremenchutc’ka submedidianal early protherozoic protogeosyncline, and in the Northern – obliquely crosses Dnipro-Donets’k late proterozoic- Devon paleorift north-western extent.
  6. On the territory of Ukraine great amount of seismic profiling were done (over 10 th km) for studying Earth crust and lithosphere structure. A map of Mokhorovichich surface was made in the atlas according to these data. The word “surface” is conventional, as actually it is powerful transition zone, that divide Earth crust from the upper mantle, that is characterized by complicated structure, alternation of thin layers with higher and lower seismic waves velocities.

On the territory of Ukraine Earth crust thickness changes in wide ranges from 25 to 65 km. Maximal crust thickness fixes under the Carpathia (65 km), Mountain Crimea (up to 60 km), jn the Ukrainian board (Odessa-Yadliv, Kryvyi Rih-Krupets’k, Orikhovo-Pavlohrad early Protherozoic geosyncline zones – 50-60 km). Minimal Earth crust thickness is observed in the Transcarpathian bending region (25 km), under Dnipro-Donets’k avlacogene (30-35 km), on the Ukrainian board, in the Zaporizhzhya middle massif region (25-30 km), Kirovohrad protoplatform block region (35 km) and on the water area of Black Sea depression (25-30 km).

Natural seismic fields caused by the local and strong distant earthquake foci, must be taken into account because of their dangerousness when accommodations, important buildings, objects at ecological and anthropogeneous risk are built. The cause of earthquakes is the present geological structure tectonic activity. Distribution of different magnitude earthquakes on the given territory in time and dimension is called seismicity.

On the territory of Ukraine the high seismicity level is observed mainly on the territory or Carpathia and Crimea-black Sea region.

Seismicity of the Carpathia region depends on the earthquakes with epicenters in Transcarpathia, Carpathia and on the adjacent territory of Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania. The most active is Transcarpathia.
On the Western regions territory (from 18th century and to the present time) earthquakes are characterized mainly by foci depth (h) 2-10 km and magnitudes (M)< 5,5. due to the small depth these earthquakes caused local effects on the soil surface with intensity up to 7-8 points on the MSK-64 scale. Similar fluctuations are felt on the Transcarpathia from deeper (h=35 km) and bigger (M=6.8) earthquakes with epicenters in Romania at the ~60 km from Ukrainian bounder. the biggest at the adjacent territories of the Precarpathia earthquake was in the 1875 year in the Lvivs’ka region. It has magnitude M=5.3, focus depth h=19 km and was felt in the epicenter with the intensity 6 points. In Chernivtsi intensity reached 3 points.

The territory of Ukraine is influenced by the subcutaneous earthquakes from Vrancea zone in Romania. Earthquake foci are placed in the mantle on the depths from 80 to 190 km. Maximal magnitudes reached 7.6. Due to big depths of the foci and magnitudes earthquakes from the Vrancea are felt on the huge territory: from Greece on the south to Finland on the north. There are earthquake foci from the Vrancea zone from 11th century with magnitudes higher than 3.5 on the epicenter map. For the last two centuries isoseims for the strongest earthquakes were defined.

Seismicity of the Crimea-Black sea region is defined by the earthquake epicenters, placed in the Black Sea water area near the Southern Coast of Crimea. They are characterized by the highest in the Ukraine magnitudes (M=6.8). On the epicenter map earthquake are represented with M>2 from the first century to the present time. On the lower part of Crimea and Sea of Azov waters area earthquake foci with M>1 are shown.

On the platform part of Ukraine only several local earthquakes are known. Their foci were in the Earth crust range, and to it, seismic effect had local character. Seismic swing intensity in the epicenter reached 6-7 point. Earthquake with intensity of 6 points on the MSK-64 scale that took place on January 3, 2002, near the village Mykulyntsi Ternopils’ka region and aftershock trail are the evidence of seismic activity availability of the platform tectonic structures on the territory of Ukraine.

Danger level, which can be caused by earthquakes, is displayed on the maps of general seismic zoning (GSZ) in the numbers of MSK-64 macroseismic scale. These maps are used in long-term social-economic planning, rational land use, acceptance of administrative and technical decisions concerning maintenance of existing constructions' stable operation and placing of the new ones (HPS, APS, pipelines, etc.). In Ukrainian seismic areas design-survey and construction works are regulated through three probabilistic ЗСР-2004 maps, marked as A, B and C. They represent intensity values of seismic shakings, which can become evident once in 500, 1000 and 5000 years accordingly, or, in other words, may be exceeded with probability of 10 %, 5 % and 1 % in the next 50 years.
Maps of seismic zoning (SZ) display a predicted increase in seismic numbers on different territory lots, according to the one, presented on GSZ map. Increases may be positive or negative, depending on the local soil conditions, relief and presence of tectonic failures. Engineering-geological researches data, macroseismic inspections of earthquakes consequences data, tool observation over the earthquakes' seismic fields, explosions, natural and technogenic microseisms are used while creating SZ maps. SZ maps are used for planning of population aggregates' development, maintenance of existing constructions' stable operation and designing of the new ones.
The maps of geophysical fields represented in the atlas and the maps and schemes, created on the basis of their interpretation, which display depth of the lithosphere structure, dynamics of tectonic structures, the danger, connected with earthquakes, creep movements, shifts, subsidences, etc., is an important tool for the preception of a deep planet structure, purposeful search of minerals, protection of the population, habitation and important constructions from dangerous endogenous processes and the secondary engineering-geological phenomena, connected with them.

Data of geomagnetic measurements of the Arctic and Antarctic

These geomagnetic measurements on the site of Geophysics Center RAN: the importance of the components of magnetic fields, catalogs and maps of measured values of isolines of the geomagnetic field.

Data of National Antarctic Research Center is available by arrangement with the NASC.

Geomagnetic data of Antarctic

Geomagnetic data

Geomagnetic observatories in Antarctic






























Geomagnetic data of Arctic

Geomagnetic data

Geomagnetic observatories in Arctic.















Beliy Island




Cape Chelyuskin




Cape Kamenniy




Cape Schmidt




Cape Wellen








Dixon Island




Heiss Island








Kotelny Island




















Podkam. Tunguska
















Tixie Bay








Vise Island













Floating stations:

North Pole 8


North Pole 12


North Pole 13


New maps of the magnetic fields of Ukraine

Comparison between the magnetic heterogeneity of Ukrainian board earth crust and distribution areas of magmatic and metamorphic rocks of the basic structure

The scheme of the Ukrainian board magnetic heterogeneities

Local anomalies of the geomagnetic field


Nonmagnetic Deep Blocks of Earth Crust in connection with the Nodes of Traversal of Transemegablock Crustmantle Magmoactive zones

Edges of the deep magnetic blocks of the earth crust in association with section knots of transmegablock crust-mantle structurally-deformational (magmoactive) zones are perspective in kimberlite magmatism.

Non-magnetic deep blocks of the earth crust in association with section knots of transmegablock crust-mantle structurally-deformational (magmoactive) zones are perspective in kimberlite-lamproite magmatism.

Genetic and structural-genetic connections between abnormal magnetic field of the earth and its oil-and-gas content are substantiated.

On the basis of the developed maps of regional and local magnetic anomalies of the oil-and-gas basins of Ukraine, locations of the basic deep oil-and-gas monitoring fractures and fractures and oil-and-gas providing channels are substantiated, and the ways of hydrocarbons migration can be connected with it.

Petromagnetic Types of Earth Crust

By the magmatism type, size of magnetisation and yhe lithosphere structure, four petromagnetic earth crust types are singled out.

The most widespread mafic and sialmafic types, which are characterised by the basic magmatism and high magnetisation values, are considered to be the structures of extension modes. Areas of primordial continental crust consolidations, rifts (paleorifts) and zones of oceanic and continental lithosphere articulation can be analogues of such structures.

Initial magmatism of the basic structure and formation of the magnetic sources is considered to date back to early stages of the large tectonomagmatic cycles, which coincide in the time relation with the periods of maximum dislocations of the Ukrainian board in width or its maximum turns.

Regions' perspectivity in minerals of magmatic, hydrothermal and pegmatite types is defined by the through lithospere structures together with corresponding conditions in earth crust.

Results of 3D Analysis of Magnetic Model of Earth Crust

3D Earth crust magnetic models with other geological-geophysical data in connection with tectonics, magmatism, metallogenic specialisation and minerals prognostication were analysed.

Magmatic formations of the basic and ultrabasic structure of pre-platform development stage of Ukrainian board, which are drawn off on the surface of crystal base, are situated mainly over deep blocks (or their edges) of the Earth crust with the raised magnetisation values;

Reduction of average magnetisation value of the materials with basic and ultrabasic structure along with the reduction of their formation age is discovered, and the maximum magnetisation of crust bottoms of archaic Podolsky, Buzhsky, and partially Serednyoprydniprovsky megablocks and the West Priazovsky block, its smaller intensity in the Volynsky megablock and practically not magnetic bottom crust of the platform activization areas is connected with it.

NASA Earth Observatory

Antarctic Master Directory (AMD)

Data of Antarctic Master Directory (AMD)

NASA Earth Observatory

Black Sea in Bloom

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This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002.

According to the Black Sea Environment Programme’s Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is “one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.” The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated—supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west.

Because it is isolated from the world’s oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea’s waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality.

Scientists from each of the Black Sea’s bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem. Working with a spirit of placing more emphasis on joint ownership of the Black Sea’s resources, and less emphasis on blame, it is hoped that the cooperating countries can strike an effective balance between both enjoying and preserving the Black Sea.

Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE.

EO Natural Hazards: Stressed Crops in Ukraine and Russia

Stressed Crops in Ukraine and Russia Image. Caption explains image.

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Image Acquired:  May 08, 2006

Stressed Crops in Ukraine and Russia
Under the one-two punch of a dry fall and a frigid winter, winter crops in Ukraine were in poor condition in April and May 2006. This vegetation anomaly (difference from normal) image was created from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite. Widespread brown indicates that plants throughout the region had grown less compared to the average growth for 2000-2005. The Foreign Agricultural Service, a division of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, estimated that only 10 metric tons of winter wheat, the primary crop growing here, would be harvested in July and August. That figure was down about 46 percent from the 18.7 metric tons harvested in 2005.

Why were winter crops in such rough shape? The biggest reason is drought. From August to October or November, depending on the location, little rain fell over the Ukrainian fields where winter grains were being planted, said the Foreign Agricultural Service. In Ukraine, roughly 42 million hectares of the total 60 million hectares is devoted to agriculture, and winter wheat and barley are among the most important crops. Planted in the fall, winter grains typically develop strong roots before going into dormancy with the onset of winter. During the winter, the crop is protected from the killing cold by an insulating layer of snow, and when the snow melts, the grain continues to grow until it is harvested in July and August. In 2005, the drought delayed planting, so the plants did not have time to develop strong root systems.

And then the cold hit. An unusual deep freeze gripped Eastern Europe in mid-January. Though little of the wheat crop was damaged, winter barely and rape seed were. The widespread impact of drought and cold is clear from the negative vegetation anomaly shown above.

All crop information cited in this caption is from the Foreign Agricultural Service. Links to the most recent crop report and general information about Ukrainian agriculture are provided below.

Further Reading:

NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef as part of the Global Agricultural Monitoring Project between NASA, USDA’s Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS), and the University of Maryland.

EO Newsroom: New Images - Chernobyl, Ukraine

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Eighteen years ago, on April 26, 1986, the world’s worst nuclear power accident occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near the Ukrainian-Belarus border. Toxic radionuclides like Cs137 and Sr90 contaminated an area of 155,000 square kilometers in what is today Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. Hundreds of thousands of people were killed, sickened from radiation-induced illnesses, or resettled to uncontaminated land.

Today, the immediate area remains off limits to humans. The plant was permanently closed in 2000. The surrounding agricultural land has been abandoned, and the two nearby towns (Pripyat to the north and Chernobyl to the south) where plant workers lived are largely ghost towns. Instead of people, abundant wildlife—packs of wolves, deer, and birds—roam and live near Chernobyl.

This image, taken seven years ago from the Russian Mir spacecraft, shows Chernobyl and the surrounding countryside. The power plant is situated on the northwest end of a cooling pond on the Pripyat River, which flows into the Dnepr River just 80 miles north of Kiev. The main features visible in the image are the massive concrete dams and levees that were constructed to contain elements of the power plant and prevent contaminated runoff from entering the local streams. The cooling water canals leading to the pond, and the levees in the middle of the pond that channeled the water circulation can also be seen. The darker green regions are forests and the light green areas are cleared land used for agriculture.


Image NM23-745-116 was taken April 27, 1997, from the Russian Mir Space Station with a Hasselblad medium format camera equipped with a 250-mm lens and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The NASA-Mir program was the first phase of the International Space Station Program, which now supports the Earth Observations Laboratory. The program trains astronauts to take pictures of Earth that are of value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

EO Newsroom: New Images - Icy Spring Decimates Winter Crops in Ukraine

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Severe ice crusting during February and March 2003 smothered both winter grains and alfalfa fields throughout central and southern Ukraine.

Approximately 50 percent of Ukraine's winter wheat perished over the winter, including nearly 90 percent in the Dnipropetrovsk region, which is one of Ukraine’s top grain producing regions. The ice also destroyed 90 percent of the barley crop, and 30 percent of the rye crop.

The difference between a normal year of winter crop production and this spring’s devastating losses is shown in the pair of images of above, captured on April 17, 2003 (top), and April 21, 2002 (bottom), by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra spacecraft. The false-color composite shows vegetation as green, bare ground as brownish-red, clouds as light blue, and water as black or dark blue.

Bare soil dominates this year’s image, with most of the Ukraine (center), southwestern Russia (right), and Moldova (southwest of Ukraine) swathed in deep reddish brown. Slim ribbons of green vegetation line the small rivers feeding into the Dnieper River (center), and in the upper left corner, the Pripet Marshes appear green as well. At bottom center is the northern part of the Black Sea, with the Sea of Azov to the northeast. The Russian landscape to the east of the Sea of Azov had dramatically less vegetation this spring than last.

According to statistics from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, this year’s winterkill in Ukraine was the worst in recent history. The wheat production estimate of 9.5 million tons put out in May by the Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division (PECAD) of the Foreign Agricultural Service was the lowest in 40 years. Read more about the crop damage in an article by PECAD.

Image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team, NASA GSFC.

EO Newsroom: New Images - Kiev, Ukraine

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Kiev (also spelled Kyiv) is the capital of Ukraine, the second largest country in Europe (second only to Russia and slightly larger than France). The city’s history has long been entwined with Russia’s. In the region’s early history, Kiev was the capital city of a state that encompassed much of the surrounding lands. Invaded by the Mongols in the 13th century, Kiev fell from primacy, but rebuilt itself and remained a major city power for centuries. It became the capital of the newly independent Ukraine in 1991 when the country declared independence from the Soviet Union.

This natural-color scene of Kiev was acquired by the Landsat 7 satellite’s Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) on September 14, 2001. The city landscape is dominated by high-rise apartment buildings, a network of wide boulevards, public monuments, and city parks. In this image, green indicates vegetation, blue indicates water, and beige and gray indicate buildings and roads. The geometric shapes of agricultural land show up in the lower left corner of the image, while dark green forests dominate the upper left and the right margin.

Kiev is built on the banks of the Dnieper River, which runs north to south through the center of Ukraine and into the Black Sea. The curving river meanders through the city, and once outside, it widens to a width of 1.6 kilometers (1 mile). Farther downstream, however, it passes through a rocky plateau, changing to a series of rapids that provide hydroelectric power. A large hydroelectric dam just north of the city controls the flow of the river’s water and provides some of the city’s electrical power, though much more power comes from the famous and controversial Chernobyl nuclear power plant farther north.

NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the University of Maryland’s Global Land Cover Facility.

EO Newsroom: New Images - Kyiv, Ukraine (2)

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Last week, the International Space Station Expedition 8 crew took a series of images of the Ukrainian city of Kyiv (Kiev) on a reservoir on the Dnipro (Dnieper) River. Kyiv is the capital of Ukraine and home to nearly 3 million people.

Kyiv is rich in the history of western civilization. It was a trade center on the Baltic-Black Sea route in the 11th and 12th centuries, and one of the major cities in the Christian world, until Mongol invaders destroyed the city in 1240. Some of the 11th-century cathedrals, which contain famous artifacts, remain standing and have been restored. Throughout the Middle Ages, Kyiv suffered through different occupations, but rose to be the center of Russian Orthodox Christianity by the 1800s. This cosmopolitan city was again largely destroyed during World War II. Despite its turbulent history, many of Kyiv ’s world famous artifacts have been rebuilt, and the city is prominent as a cultural center.

Image ISS008-E-20656 was taken April 4, 2004 with a Kodak DCS760 digital camera equipped with an 80 mm lens and is provided by the Earth Observations Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. The International Space Station Program supports the laboratory to help astronauts take pictures of Earth that will be of the greatest value to scientists and the public, and to make those images freely available on the Internet. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA/JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

Ukraine: Agricultural Overview

Ukraine agriculture has been evolving since it achieved independence in 1991, following the breakup of the Soviet Union. State and collective farms were officially dismantled in 2000. Farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares and most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations. The sudden loss of State agricultural subsidies had an enormous effect on every aspect of Ukrainian agriculture. The contraction in livestock inventories that had begun in the late 1980's continued and intensified. Fertilizer use fell by 85 percent over a ten-year period, and grain production by 50 percent. Farms were forced to cope with fleets of aging, inefficient machinery because no funds were available for capital investment. At the same time, however, the emergence from the Soviet-style command economy enabled farmers to make increasingly market-based decisions regarding crop selection and management, which contributed to increased efficiency in both the livestock and crop-production sectors. Difficulty in obtaining credit, especially large, long-term loans, remains a significant problem for many farms.

Agricultural Land Area and Major Crops

The climate of Ukraine is roughly similar to that of Kansas: slightly drier and cooler during the summer and colder and wetter during the winter, but close enough for comparison. The weather is suitable for both winter and spring crops. Average annual precipitation in Ukraine is approximately 600 millimeters (24 inches), including roughly 350 millimeters during the growing season (April through October). Amounts are typically higher in western and central Ukraine and lower in the south and east.

Of Ukraine's total land area of 60 million hectares, roughly 42 million is classified as agricultural land, which includes cultivated land (grains, technical crops, forages, potatoes and vegetables, and fallow), gardens, orchards, vineyards, and permanent meadows and pastures. Winter wheat, spring barley, and corn are the country's main grain crops. Sunflowers and sugar beets the main technical, or industrial, crops. Agricultural land use has shifted significantly since Ukraine declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Between 1991 and 2000, sown area dropped by about 5 percent, from 32.0 million hectares to 30.4 million, and area decreased for almost every category of crop except for technical crops (specifically sunflowers). Forage-crop area plunged by nearly 40 percent, concurrent with a steep slide in livestock inventories and feed demand.

Wheat is grown throughout the country, but central and south-central Ukraine are the key production zones. About 95 percent of Ukraine wheat is winter wheat, planted in the fall and harvested during July and August of the following year. On the average, approximately 15 percent of fall-planted crops fail to survive the winter. The amount of winterkill varies widely from year to year, from 2 percent in 1990 to a staggering 65 percent in 2003, when a persistent ice crust smothered the crop. Wheat yield declined during the 1990's following the breakup of the Soviet Union and the loss of heavy State subsidies for agriculture. Farms struggled with cash shortages, and the use of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals plummeted. Due to a combination of favorable weather and a modest but steady improvement in the financial condition of many farms, wheat production has rebounded in recent years (except for the disastrous 2003/04 crop which fell victim to unusually severe winter weather). Ukraine produces chiefly hard red winter wheat (bread wheat), and in a typical year roughly 80 percent of domestic wheat output is considered milling quality, by Ukrainian standards. Feed consumption of wheat dropped sharply during the 1990's, from over 12 million tons to less than 5 million. Meanwhile, food consumption has remained steady at around 10 million tons.

Barley has been the top feed grain in Ukraine for most of the past ten years in terms of consumption, surpassing wheat in the early 1990's. Spring barley accounts for over 90 percent of barley area, and the main production region is eastern Ukraine. Spring barley is typically planted in April and harvested in August, and is the crop most frequently used for spring reseeding of damaged or destroyed winter-grain fields. Area is inversely related, to some degree, to winter wheat area. Winter barley is the least cold-tolerant of the winter grains, and production is limited to the extreme south. The increasing demand for malt from the brewing industry has led to a jump in malting barley production and the import of high-quality planting seed from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Germany, and France. Consumption of barley for malting purposes has surpassed 300,000 tons, but still accounts for only 5 percent of total barley consumption.

Increased production -- specifically, three bumper harvests since 2001 -- and diminishing domestic demand for feed grains have contributed to a jump in Ukrainian wheat and barley exports. The boom in exports was fueled also by relatively low production costs and the reduction or elimination of price controls and export restrictions in 1994. Most exports go to the Middle East, North Africa, and Europe. (See attaché reports: Grain and Feed Annual, April 2004, and How is Ukrainian Grain Competitive?, August 2002.)

Corn is the third important feed grain in Ukraine. Planted area has increased despite several impediments: obsolete and inadequate harvesting equipment, high cost of production (specifically post-harvest drying expenses), and pilferage. The main production region is eastern and southern Ukraine, although precipitation amounts in some oblasts in the extreme south are too low to support corn production. Corn is typically planted in late April or early May. Harvest begins in late September and is usually nearing completion by early November. Only 25 to 50 percent of total corn area is harvested for grain; the rest is cut for silage, usually in August. (The USDA corn estimates refer to corn for grain only.) Corn is used chiefly for poultry and swine feed, and production and consumption have risen since 2000 concurrent with a rebound in poultry inventories. Russia and Belarus are the chief destinations for Ukrainian corn exports.

Sunflowerseed is Ukraine's chief oilseed crop. Production is concentrated in the southern and eastern oblasts. Sunflowers are typically planted in April and harvested from mid-September to mid-October. Because of a combination of high price, relatively low cost of production, and traditionally high demand, sunflowerseed has become one of the most consistently profitable crops. (See Sunflowerseed Production in Russia and Ukraine, June 2004.) Its high profitability fueled a significant expansion in planted area beginning in the late 1990's. Many farmers in Ukraine abandoned the traditional crop-rotation practices recommended by agricultural officials which called for planting sunflowers no more than once every seven years in the same field. The aim of the 1-in-7 rotation is to prevent soil-borne fungal diseases and reduce the depletion of soil moisture and fertility. (Because of their deep rooting system, sunflowers reportedly extract higher amounts of water and nutrients from the soil than do other crops in the rotation.)

Sugar beets are grown primarily in central and western Ukraine. Beets are planted in late April and early May and harvested from mid-September through the end of October. Production has been on the decline since the early 1990's due chiefly to low profitability compared to grains and sunflowerseed. Between 1994 and 2003, planted area declined by 50 percent to less than 0.8 million hectares, and production from 28.1 to 13.4 million tons. Large farms are sometimes encouraged by the local administrators to plant sugar beets not so much to make money but rather to provide a social safety net or to supplement to pensioners or farm workers. A family may be responsible for weeding a specific section of a field and the workers in turn receive 20 percent of the sugar processed from the beets harvested from its section. Sugar also frequently serves as part of farm workers’ salaries.

On private household plots, meanwhile, sugar beet area has increased. Sugar beet production requires a significant amount of hand labor and remains a viable option for small household farms with limited access to agricultural machinery. Household plots now account for approximately 25 percent of Ukrainian sugar beet output compared to only 3 percent in 1995. (See attache report: Sugar Annual, April 2004.)

Crop Rotations

Farms in Ukraine employ a variety of crop-rotation schemes, some including four or more crops, some only two. A six-year crop rotation in the winter grain region will often include two consecutive years of wheat and one season of "clean fallow," during which no crop is sown. The chief reason for including fallow in the rotation is to replenish soil-moisture reserves, and it is more widely used in southern eastern Ukraine where drought is not uncommon. A typical crop sequence might be: fallow, winter wheat, winter wheat, sunflowers, spring barley, and corn. Wheat almost always follows fallow. According to farm directors, this enables the wheat -- which is typically the priority crop -- to benefit from the reduced weed infestation. (Fields are cultivated several times during the fallow season.). Some crop rotations include several consecutive years of a forage crop. An example of such a rotation would be: fallow, two years of winter wheat, and four years of perennial forage. The perennial forage is usually alfalfa; farmers will get three to four cuttings per year, five if the crop is irrigated. In southern Ukraine, clean fallow is frequently omitted and a crop rotation will likely include sugar beets and/or sunflower, the region's chief industrial crops. A typical seven-year rotation might be: winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beets, winter wheat, winter barley, sunflowers, and corn. The vast majority of field crops, including grains, sunflowers, and sugar beets, are not irrigated. Traditionally, irrigation is used only on forage crops and vegetables. Roughly 5 percent of grains and 10 percent of potatoes, vegetables, and forage crops are irrigated.


During the final years of the Soviet era, winter wheat was the focus of the so-called intensive technology movement, which was marked by the use of improved varieties and the increased application of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals. Yields climbed in response to the enhanced management practices. The intensive technology program fizzled during the early 1990's, however, when the collapse of the Soviet Union marked an end to heavy State subsidies for agriculture and farms were forced to struggle with crippling cash shortages, a crumbling agricultural infrastructure, and skyrocketing fertilizer prices.

According to official statistics, the fertilizer application rate for wheat plunged from 149 kilograms per hectare in 1990 (when fertilizer was excessively and wastefully applied) to 24 kilograms in 2000. The application rate for corn dropped even more sharply. Fertilizer use has increased modestly since 2000. Rates are still significantly below recommended amounts, but wheat yields have rebounded since 2000 (except for the weather-related crop disaster of 2003) due to a combination of favorable weather and improved crop-management practices on the large agricultural enterprises.

There is no shortage of mineral fertilizers or plant-protection chemicals in Ukraine. Any inputs that a farmer needs can be obtained if the farm has money or can get credit. The high price of imported herbicides and fungicides has caused some farmers to cut back on their use, or to use less expensive and less effective domestic products. Farmers still rely to a large degree on mechanical weed control.

Obsolete Machinery and Inadequate On-Farm Storage

A chronic lack of modern harvesting equipment remains one of Ukraine’s main obstacles to increasing grain output and quality. In the late 1980's, the Ukrainian winter wheat harvest could be finished in roughly three weeks. Harvest now takes twice as long to complete, and both yield and grain quality suffer as a result of the delays. Farm managers estimate that 10 to 20 percent of the standing crop is typically lost due to outdated, inefficient machinery. Custom combining is available, but operators charge 20 to 25 percent of the crop in exchange for their services. Farmers must weigh custom-combining charges against potential harvest losses, and most choose to harvest their own grain. Another consideration for the farm director, in addition to cost, is that the harvest campaign provides work for the farm employees.

Many farmers are compelled to sell grain shortly after harvest when prices typically are lowest. One of the main reasons is a shortage of on-farm storage capacity, especially following a good harvest. This is a relic of the Soviet system, which was designed for immediate post-harvest shipment of grain to regional elevators. The need to repay short-term debts or to satisfy "payment-in-kind" arrangements is the second chief factor contributing to the untimely sale of grain (i.e., untimely from the farmer’s perspective). At harvest time many traders are offering cash for grain. Banks do not accept grain as payment, and for a farm director struggling with a heavy debt burden the lure of immediate cash is difficult to resist. The greatest obstacle to increasing on-farm grain storage and modernizing the fleet of agricultural machinery is the difficulty for many farms to obtain large, long-term loans for capital investments. (See "Credit Problems" below.)


The production of grain and oilseed crops is dominated by large agricultural enterprises that were established when Ukraine’s agricultural sector was restructured in April, 2000. (In contrast, nearly 90 percent of the country's vegetables and virtually all of the potatoes are grown on private household plots.) State and collective farms were dismantled and farm property was divided among the farm workers in the form of land shares. Most new shareholders leased their land back to newly-formed private agricultural associations, under the leadership of a director who was frequently, but not always, the manager of the former State farm. Consolidation of small farms into larger and more viable enterprises has been the prevailing trend, similar to what took place in Russia several years earlier. (For a brief discussion of Ukraine’s agricultural restructuring, see June 2001 report.) The conversion to a more market-oriented environment has progressed relatively well according to most observers. Many farms are succeeding, under shrewd leadership, in spite of fluctuating grain prices and constraints on the availability of credit. The transition of Ukraine's agricultural sector from a command economy to a more market-oriented system has introduced the element of fiscal responsibility, and farm managers are striving to make their enterprises as efficient as possible. Decisions on crop selection, fertilizer application, harvest method, grain storage, and all other aspects of farm management are made with an eye toward boosting farm profit. Ukraine agriculture is going through a winnowing process whereby unprofitable, usually smaller farms will either collapse or join more successful farms.

Credit Problems

Most farms are able to receive credit, but interest rates and collateral demands are high. Since many farms are already heavily in debt to banks or suppliers of fertilizer and plant-protection chemicals, and since agricultural loans are not guaranteed by the government, banks are largely unwilling to make long-term loans. Most credit is extended in the form of seasonal loans (six to ten months) used almost exclusively for the purchase of fertilizer and plant protection chemicals. Commercial interest rates typically range from 25 to 30 percent. The State provides assistance to farms by paying 50 percent of the interest on agricultural loans. Banks typically require 200 to 300 percent collateral, depending on the farm’s credit history and the risk level. Future crop usually serves as collateral, but collateral can also be offered in the form of livestock, farm machinery, or the personal property of the farm director. Under current legislation, land cannot be used as collateral. Farms' difficulty in obtaining anything other than short-term, high-interest loans places severe constraints on their ability to invest in long-term capital improvements, such as agricultural machinery or storage facilities. Using land as collateral would enable farms to receive longer-term loans, but many farm directors remain leery of the Ukrainian banking system – which is not yet as stable as in Russia – and are reluctant to risk losing their land in default. Furthermore, many agricultural enterprises are comprised of hundreds of shareholders, whose permission would need to be obtained before the farm director could use the land as collateral.

In many cases, the best option is for a farm to attract an investor who can provide market expertise, operating capital, and collateral to enable the farm to secure loans. The potential “down side” of investor arrangements, from the farmer's perspective, is that farm directors to some extent lose control of farm operations. Often the investment company, or “holding company,” insists on maintaining control over every aspect of production and essentially takes over the farm, equipment, and land. Farms are forced to enter into extended leases of five to ten years, sometimes longer, because they depend heavily on cash from the holding company.

The consensus of most observers is that already-successful farms will continue to expand as shareholders pull out of failing farms and lease their plots to stronger ones. Clearly, many farms will not survive the transition to a market economy, and high-risk farms with few liquid assets, heavy debt, bad credit history, and poor management will collapse. (See 2004, 2003, and 2002 trip reports for additional comments on the financial difficulties of Ukrainian farmers.)

Shrinking Livestock Inventories

The loss of State subsidies following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 increased feed and production costs and reduced profitability for livestock enterprises. As prices for meat products increased, consumer demand declined, thus establishing a downward spiral that continued throughout the decade. Livestock inventories, and demand for forage, continued to shrink. The increasing inability of large agricultural enterprises (i.e., former State and collective farms) to maintain livestock operations, due largely to inefficient management and farms' inability to ensure sufficient feed supplied, resulted in increased dependence on private producers and household farms to satisfy demand for beef and pork. Furthermore, the involvement of investor groups (holding companies) in agricultural production has had an impact on livestock numbers. Many farms who entered agreements with investment firms killed off their herds because livestock is not quickly profitable and not as attractive to investors. Although the freefall in livestock inventories has slowed since 2000, a rapid recovery in beef production is unlikely. Cattle inventories are increasing on private household farms, which typically have two to three head of cattle per farm, but large industrial farms are shifting away from cattle and toward crop production and total cattle inventories continue to decrease. (See attaché report: Livestock Annual, August 2004.)

Remote Sounding of the Earth (RSE)

Archive of pictures of the Earth from satellite Blue Marble

Blue Marble: View of the eastern hemisphere
Blue Marble: View of the eastern hemisphere
Blue Marble: Close up of the Grand Canyon Region
Blue Marble: Close up of the Grand Canyon Region
Blue Marble: Antarctica
Blue Marble: Antarctica
Blue Marble: The Andes, South America
Blue Marble: The Andes, South America
LandSat 7: NASA Kennedy Space Flight Center
LandSat 7: NASA Kennedy Space Flight Center
LandSat 7: NASA Ames Research Center
LandSat 7: NASA Ames Research Center
LandSat 7: Svineryggen, Greenland
LandSat 7: Svineryggen, Greenland
LandSat 7: Gora Venuy Sedayedam, Russia
LandSat 7: Gora Venuy Sedayedam, Russia
SRTM LandSat 7: Mt. St. Helens, Washington
SRTM LandSat 7: Mt. St. Helens, Washington
SRTM + LandSat 7: Mt. Everest, Nepal
SRTM + LandSat 7: Mt. Everest, Nepal
SRTM + LandSat 7: Hong Kong, China
SRTM + LandSat 7: Hong Kong, China
SRTM + LandSat 7: Mt. Fuji, Japan
SRTM + LandSat 7: Mt. Fuji, Japan
MODIS - 10-4-2003, Hurricane Kate, Atlantic Ocean
MODIS - 10-4-2003, Hurricane Kate, Atlantic Ocean
MODIS - 10-25-2003, Los Angles fire smoke
MODIS - 10-25-2003, Los Angles fire smoke

Description Remote Sensing of the Earth data and satellites

File Formats processing facility, removing the names and characteristics of satellites (Landsat, Terra, Alos, QuickBird, Monitor-E and others).

  • Information on remote sensing data and their processing for GIS-LAB.
  • Description of the satellites that are in remote sensing Sovzond.

Pictures of Earth from the satellite ALOS

Request for images of Earth from ALOS satellite You can provide on site European Space Agency.

Remote sensing data for Ukraine

Catalogs satellite images and interactive maps based on satellite data and other information Ukrainian laboratories, on the territory of Ukraine.

Researches on the basis of Remote Sensing the Earth

Reviews of research results.

Data on the research of the Institute of Geophysics. I.S. Subbotin, the departments of the institute.

World EOS/ERS data

ERS - Earth Remote Sensing
EOS - Earth Observation Server

Seismic Tomography

Ukraine data

Seismic exploration

Relief of Mocho discontinuity and Speed discontinuity. Ukrainian Shield

Speed discontinuity and Bounder Relief. Ukrainian Shield


Earthquakes catalogue

Global catalogues - Catalogue composed by Gytenberg and Rihter, 1904-1952

View catalog

Global catalogues - publications

  1. Ganse R.A., Nelson J.B. Catalog of Significant Earthquakes, 2000 B.C.-1979. Including Quantitative Casualties and Damage.- World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics, Report SE-27, Boulder, USA, 1981.

  2. Duda S.J. Secular Seismic Energy Release in the Circum-Pacific Belt. /Survey of Earthquakes with Magnitude 7.0 or Greater in Period 1897-1964/.- Tectonophysics, V.2, N5, 409-452, 1965.

  3. Bath M., Duda S.J. Some Aspects of Global Seismicity. /Major Earthquakes with Seismological Institute, Report N1-79, Uppsala, Sweden, 1979.

  4. Usami T. Worldwide Earthquake Catalog Containing Events with Magnitude Greater than or Equal to 7 During the Period 1900-1962.- In: Historical Seismogram Filming Project: First Progress Report (H.Meyers, W.H.K.Lee, Eds.). World Data Center A for Solid Earth Geophysics, Report SE-22, Boulder, USA, 1979, pp.26-53.

  5. Magnitude 7.0 or Greater During the Period 1965-1977/.- Index Catalogue of Epicentres (1913.0-1920.5).- University Observatory, Oxford, 1924.

  6. Bellamy E.F. Index Catalogue of Epicentres for 1913-1930. A Geographical Index to the International Seismological Summary.- University Observatory, Oxford, 1936.

  7. Bellamy E.F. Index Catalogue of Epicentres for 1931-1935. Supplement to Index Catalogue 1913-1930 of the International Seismological Summary.- University Observatory, Oxford, 1947.

  8. Index Catalogue of Epicentres Contained in the International Seismological Summary 1936-1942. Supplement to Index Cata- loguE 1913-1930, Index Catalogue 1931-1935.- Kew Observatory, Richmond, 1953.

  9. Index Catalogue of Epicentres Contained in the International Seismological Summary 1943-1948. Supplement to the Index Cata- loguE 1913-1930, Index Catalogue 1931-1935, Index Catalogue 1936-1942.- Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey, 1957.

  10. Earthquake Information Bulletin. Vol.9,N5,1977, Vol.10,N5,6, Vol.11,N6,1979, Vol.12 N1,2,4-6,1980, Vol.13,N1-6,1981, Vol.14, N1-5,1982, Vol.15,N1-6,1983, Vol.16,N1-6,1984, Vol.17,N2-6, 1985. U.S. Department of the Interior Geological Survey.

  11. Earthquake & Volcanoes. Vol.18,N1-6,1986, Vol.19,N1-6,1987, Vol.19,N1-6,1987, Vol.20,N1-6,1988, Vol.21,N2,3,1989. U.S. Department of the Interior Geological Survey.

  12. Catalogue of Epicentres in International Seismological Summary for 1931-1953. /In Annual Issues/.- Kew Observatory, Richmond, Surrey, 1936-1961.

  13. Rothe J.P. The Seismicity of the Earth, 1953-1965.- UNESCO, 1969.

  14. Provisional Epicenters. VII.1957-VI.1961, VIII.1961-I.1963, III.1963-II.1965, IV.1965-IV.1966, VII.1966-II.1967.- In: Seis- mological Bulletin. U.S.Department of Commerce, Coast and Geodetic Survey.

  15. Regional Catalogue of Earthquakes. Volums 1-19, I.1964-XII. 1982.- International Seismological Centre, Newbury, United Kingdom, 1967-1985.

  16. Preliminary Determination of Epicenters /PDE/. Monthly Listing. VII.1972-XII.1984.- U.S.Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, National Earthquake Information Service, 1972-1985.

  17. Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR) Monthly Seismic Bulletin. IX.1971-IX.1976, X.1977-III.1984.- Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Kjeller, Norway, 1971-1985.

  18. Oперативный сейсмологический каталог. I.1973-XII.1975, VII.1976-XII.1977, I.1979-XII.1984.- Институт Физики Земли AH CCCP, Центр сейсмической информации, Oбнинск, 1979-1985.

  19. The Catalogue of Earthquakes in the World, 1971,1973-1980.- In: Bulletin of Seismological Observations of Chinese Stations . Institute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, Seismological Press, Beijing, China, 1974-1983.

  20. Catalogue of Events. I.1979-VIII.1981, X.1981-XI.1983, I.1984-V.1984, VII.1984, IX.1984-XI.1984.- In: Preliminary Seismological Report of Chinese Seismic Stations , V.1-6. In- Stitute of Geophysics, State Seismological Bureau, Beijing, China, 1979-1984.

  21. Sumario de Telesismos, I.1971-IX.1976, I.1977-III.1977, VII.1977-III.1978, VII.1978-IX.1978, I.1979-III.1979.- In: Boletin Sismologico. Datos Geofisicos Serie "D", V.55-63. Servicio Sismologico Nacional, Instituto de GeofisIca, Mexico.

Other catalogues

Regional catalogues and earthquakes description - publications


  1. Preliminary Earthquake Locations . IV.1982-XII.1984.- In: Preliminary Seismological Bulletin. Phase & Hipocentral Data. BMRGG, Canberra, Australia, 1982-1985.

National Center for Seismic Data in Ukraine

Data of National Center for seismological data.

Data of Institute of geophysics of NAS of Ukraine the name of S.I. Subbotina

Powerful earthquakes information

Seismic danger

Seismic risk microzoning of Ukrraine

Seismicity of Antarctic

Data of earthquakes in Antarctic

Seismic observatories in Antarctic




Altitude, m













Seismicity of Arctic

Data of earthquakes in Arctic

Seismic observatories in Arctic.




Altitude, m




























Island Hayes



































Seismicity of Ukraine

Scale 1:5 000 000

             Authors: Kendzera  О.V., Pustovitenko B.G., Kutas V.V., Kulchitsky V.E. Verbytsky S.T., Pronishin R.S., Safronov О.M.,  Korolyov V.О.,  Kalitova І.А., Pasynkov  G.D.,  Stasyuk А.F.

Seismicity of Ukraine becomes apparent in western, southwestern and southern areas, where two basic seismic regions are allocated: Carpathian and Crimean-Black Sea.

Seismicity of the Carpathian region is defined by earthquakes with fires in Zakarpattya, Carpathians, Prykarpattya and also in the nearby territories of neighbouring countries: Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. The most seismoactive is Zakarpattya.

In the western areas of Ukraine (from the XVІІ centuries up to our time) earthquakes are generally characterised by th depths of fires (h) 2-10 km and magnitudes (M) <5.5. Due to the small depth these earthquakes cause local vibrations of soil surfaces with intensity of 7-7.5 points. The same vibrations are felt in Zakarpattya due to the earthquakes deeper (h=35 km) and bigger in size (М=6.8) with fires located in Romania (Pishkolz) at the distance of about 60 km from the Ukrainian borders. In Prykarpattya the biggest authentically described earthquake took place in 1875 near the region Velyki Mosty (in the Lvov region). It was characterised by the magnitude М=5.3, fire's depth of h=19 km and was felt in the epicentral zone with the intensity of 6 points.

A considerable part of the Ukrainian territory is under influence of the undercrust earthquakes, which take place in the Vranch zone in Romania (area of the joint between the Eastern and Southern Carpathians). Fires of the earthquakes, which are capable to become the reason of macroseismic manifestations on the territory of Ukraine, are located in the mantle at depths ranging from 80 to 190 km. Maximum magnitudes of earthquakes in this zone reached 7.6 points. Due to the big depths and magnitudes, earthquakes of the Vranch zone become apperent on the huge territory: from the South of Greece to the North of Finland.

On the epicentres' map the earthquakes’ fires in the Vranch zone are presented since XІ century with magnitudes over 3.5 points. Isoseists of the strongest earthquakes in the Vranch zone are reliably established for the last two centuries. For the construction of isoseists the published materials were used, and for the earthquakes of 1977-1990 - authors' data.

Seismicity of the Crimean-Black Sea region is defined by the epicentres of the earthquakes located in the water area of the Black sea, near the Southern coast of Crimea which are characterised by the highest indicators throughout the Ukrainian territory: magnitudes up to 6.8. On the epicentres' map the Crimean earthquakes are presented with magnitudes, exceeding 2.0, during supervision period between the І century BC up to the present time. On the flat part of Crimea and the Sea of Azov fires of earthquakes with magnitudes over 1.0 are shown.

It is possible to consider the delta of Danube as separate seismic area. Here throughout the historical times earthquakes with maximum magnitude of about 7 points took place, which together with Vranch earthquakes' zone represent serious danger to the territory of Odessa region.

In the central part of Ukraine, in particular within the Ukrainian board, for the last centuries only several earthquakes with small depths (5-10 km) and low magnitudes (M = 3) were authentically fixed. These earthquakes had local character of seismic influence. The strongest earthquake in the Eastern part of Ukraine is considered to be the one in 1913 near Kupyansk (magnitude 3.5, local vibrations with the intensity up to 5-6 points). In the western part of Ukraine, near urban village Mykulynzi in the Ternopil region, earthquake with magnitude of 4 took place on January 3rd, 2002, and had intensity of 6 points in the epicentre with 7 points' effects on the weakened soils. Heretofore the specified territory had indicator of 5 points.

In Ukraine the national network of seismic supervision was created, with 18 seismic and 14 complex geophysical stations. The oldest is the seismic station "Lviv" which was founded in 1899. Digital seismic station "Kiev" was created in 1994 and it is a part of the Global seismic network.

Seismologic bulletins

International bulletins - publications


National bulletins - publications

Wave forms


Volcanos of Antarctic

Detail information on Global Volcanism Program.















Bridgeman Island




Deception Island








Hudson Mountains












Penguin Island




Peter I Island








Royal Society Range




Seal Nunataks Group












Toney Mountain















Volcanos of Arctic

Detail information on Global Volcanism Program.

Solar-terrestrial physics

Supervised by Main Astronomical Observatory of NAS of Ukraine.

Antarctic Region from satellite

Arctic from satellite


Geomagnetic data

Geomagnetic field — magnetic field of the Earth — measured in any point of earth surface is the totality of several magnetic fields, generated by different sources. This fields superimpose and interact one with other. More than 90% of measured field is generated inside the planet and in the Earth crust.

Ionosphere data

Ionosphere — is a part of upper atmosphere, where the density of unbound electrons is enough to influence the wave transmission. Ionization depends, firstly, on Solar activity.

Meteoric particle observations

Short-time flashes, appearing in the terrestrial atmosphere when invading of fast-moving minute solid particle, were called meteors (rarely, meteors are miscalled «shooting stars»).

Multimedia survey of Solar System

Project «Nine planets» is the brief survey of history, mythology and latest scientific researches of every planet and satellite in the solar system.

Multimedia survey on the site Astronet.

Planet Earth. Its structure

Planet Earth. Its structure.

Reference system, earth rotation parameters

Information data bases of space geodesy and geodynamics:

Data bases of observation results, gained with the methods of space geodesy and geodynamics with stations of ukrgeokosmomerezha (data bases of the main astronomic observatory of NAS of Ukraine):

  • Radio engineering observations of global navigation satellite system satellites (GNSS): global positioning system observations (GPS-observations).
  • Laser-location observations of Earth special artificial satellites (LLS-observations).

Data bases of observation results, gained with the methods of space geodesy and geodynamics with international station networks (international data bases):

Reference system, earth rotation parameters:

Time reference system:

Solar data and solar-terrestrial connections

Space rays

Space rays — is a natural radioactivity of space, charged particle flux of the high energies, falling to the Earth from the space (primary rays), and also secondary particles flux, born in reactions in the upper strata of atmosphere.

Ukrainian Antarctic Centre Data Service

Ukrainian Antarctic Centre Data Service


Supervised by Marine Hydrophysical Institute of NAS of Ukraine.

Data on the modelling of processes in the Black sea

Modelling of surface temperature, direction and height of the waves.

Data, received by the Marine Hydrophysics Institute NAS and data on the used models can be received on MHI NAS portal.

To obtain these data it is necessary to be registered on MHI NAS portal.

Data are presented for the period starting from 2006.

Intergovernmental oceanographic commission (IOC)

The intergovernmental oceanographic commission (IOC) UNESCO was created in 1960 within the limits of UNESCO.

According to the IOC Charter the purpose of Commission is assistance to the international cooperation and coordination of the programs, concerning researches, services and potential strengthening in interests of expansion of knowledge about the nature and resources of ocean and coastal areas, and also usage of this knowledge for management perfection, maintenance of sustainable development, protection of marine environment and simplification of decision-making processes by its member states.

Programs of IOC international cooperation include: studying of ocean's role in the climate changes, estimation of marine environment condition, creation of Global ocean supervision system, development of services of tsunami prevention and international exchange of oceanographic data and information, mapping of the World ocean's bottom, cooperation in preparation and training of experts in the field of marine sciences, including "floating universities" and UNESCO departments of IOC. IOC boards are the Assembly and Executive council. IOC secretariat is situated in the UNESCO headquarters in Paris.

In 2006 among IOC members were 136 states. In IOC activity leading national governmental marine organisations and scientific research institutes of IOC member countries take part. Within the limits of UNESCO IOC is recognised to be the body with a functional autonomy. Within the limits of the United Nations Convention on marine law IOC is recognised as "the competent international organisation in the field of marine researches and sea technology transfer". The United Nations recognised IOC as the key organisation of the United Nations system in the field of marine sciences and services. Many IOC programs are carried out together with other international organisations of the United Nations system (WМО, IМО, FAO, UNEP, IAEA), and also ISH, ICSU, SCOR, ICES, PISES, ICSEMS, etc. Increased role of IOC in the decision of the present global problems was noted by the Conference of the United Nations on environment and development (Rio, 1992) and by the World summit on the sustainable development (Johannesburg, 2002)

Data of Marine Data Management.

Marine icy coverage of Sea of Azov

According to NOAA and MODIS data.

Data, received by Marine Hydrophysical Institute NAS, can be obtained on the MHI NAS portal.

To get these data it is necessary to be registered on MHI NAS portal.

Data are given for the period since 2004.

Modis-information about Black Sea

MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) obtains data on 36 spectral strips in the scope of waves' lengths ranging from 0.4 µm to 14.4 µm in the varying permission (2 strips in 250 m, 5 strips in 500 m and 29 strips in 1 km). It is used for tracing of various global processes in atmosphere, solid Earth, oceans.

Data, received by the Marine Hydrophysics Institute NAS, can be received on the MHI NAS portal.

To obtain these data it is necessary to be registered on MHI NAS portal.

Data are presented for the period starting from 2006.

Monitoring system of water resources of Dneprovsky estuary, coastlines of the Black and Azov Seas

The interactive map, which allows to display MODIS data red band (#1) (250 m), MODIS NIR band (#2) (250 m), MODIS IR 11 mu band (#31) (1 km), MODIS IR 12 mu band (#32) (1 km) and SRTM data.

Monitoring service of the water resources of Dneprovsky estuary of the Information Processing Center of the Institute for Space Research NASU-NSAU.

NOAA Marine Data

Data on Adriatic, Aral, Baltic, Barents, Black, Caspian, Kara, etc. seas.

PML (Plymouth Marine Laboratory) data

Data of Marine Laboratory in Plymouth.

SMIS satellite data

Satellite data of NOAA, TERRA, AQUA, «Метеор-3М», «ГОМС», «РЕСУРС01», «ОКЕАН».

Data, received by the Laboratory «Information support of space monitoring» IKI RAS.

Space monitoring of coast and water area of the Black sea

The coast and the shelf of the Black Sea have always been strategically important resources for Russia in many ways. Numerous seaside resorts of the Black Sea are widely known not only in Russia but also abroad and have been very popular tourist attraction in Eurasia. Many of them are world class resorts that can compete with western ones. The current plans of region development (including construction of the Olympic complex for Sochi 2014) are aiming to transform the Black Sea coast into one of the world leading resort areas both for summer and winter tourism.

The Black Sea coast and its shelf are also important as an industrial area with developed (and growing) oil production and high level of cargo shipping. Krasnodar territory, the only Russian region on the Black Sea, possesses vast resources of oil and gas and the production has been constantly growing in recent years. Here is also situated one of the biggest Russian seaports – Novorossiysk, which is the second largest oil terminal in the country and the main in the Russian Black Sea coast area.

Realizing the scale of anthropogenic influence in the region, «Geomarketing Research Center» initiated the regular space monitoring of the Black Sea waters and the coastline, including Novorossiysk, Gelengik, Tuapse and Sochi. Using the space monitoring data the project is aiming to solve two independent problems:

For both problems the same data set of satellite images is supposed to be used, which illustrates the idea of complex approach to Earth monitoring for studying crucial geo-ecological processes.

The project goals are:

  1. Providing the public, government and commercial organizations with up-to-date information on the ecological situations related to oil spills in the sea in order to take immediate actions aimed to prevent ecological disasters or to reduce the damage caused by accidents and prosecute those responsible; 
  2. Promoting ideas of ecologically responsible business planning for building and oil production companies in order to avoid critical situations related to ground surface deformations.

Surface temperature of the Black sea according to the NOAA data

Satellite data on the surface temperature of the Black sea according to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) data.

Data, received by the Marine Hydrophysics Institute NAS and data on the used models can be received on MHI NAS portal.

To obtain these data it is necessary to be registered on MHI NAS portal.

Data are presented for the period starting from 2004.

The catalogue of metagiven USIWO

USIWO — Russian Uniform State System of Information on Conditions in the World ocean.

  • Functioning on the basis of existing information systems of Russian Hydrometereology and Environmental Monitoring Service, the Ministry of Defence of Russia, MNR of Russia, State Fishery Committee of Russia and other departments according to the coordinated order and interaction standards.
  • Supporting on the constant basis of metadata bases and information of the regulated content, technologies of access, exchange, integration of information departments' resources for a full informational supply of activity on studying of the World ocean, monitoring of its condition and use of its resources.

USIWO represents the interdepartmental distributed system of information on conditions in the World ocean.

The huge catalogue of metadata on the arrays and databases, atlases, codifiers and experts in the field of research of the World ocean, and data on information technologies of data processing, data on models and methods of calculations, formats, terms, catalogue of the marine organisations.


Supervised by Institute of Geography of NAS of Ukraine.

Historical and operational data on the Arctic climate

Historical and operational data on the Arctic climate

National atlas of Ukraine

National atlas of Ukraine

Dear friends!

I greet with pleasure readers of the National Atlas of Ukraine.

In this most complex, deep and universal information source on our beautiful country and its people there is the conclusion of long-term hard work of the best native scientists of various specialities.

Atlas gives you the possibility to learn more about Ukraine, its economics, science, education, culture, to feel the diversity and beauty of its nature. Publication of this atlas is a documentary evidence of the fact that Ukraine is already a valuable socio-political and socio-economic subject of the modern world.

I am absolutely sure, that information, given in this unique book, will be cognitive, useful and interesting for you.

Victor Yushchenko, President of Ukraine.


color scale in meters depth/elevation
go to a higher resolution view at 90N 180W. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 135W. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 90W. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 45W. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 0E. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 45E. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 90E. go to a higher resolution view at 90N 135E.
go to a higher resolution view at 45N 180W. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 135W. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 90W. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 45W. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 0E. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 45E. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 90E. go to a higher resolution view at 45N 135E.
go to a higher resolution view at 0N 180W. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 135W. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 90W. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 45W. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 0E. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 45E. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 90E. go to a higher resolution view at 0N 135E.
go to a higher resolution view at 45S 180W. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 135W. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 090W. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 45W. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 0E. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 45E. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 90E. go to a higher resolution view at 45S 135E.

Study of highly boosted forced heat transfer for applications connected with reactor equipment in the sphere of pre- and supercritical parameters

Supervised by Heat-and-Power Engineering Department of NTUU "KPI".

Data sets are provided in accordance with the following research:


1. Study of the heat transfer, critical heat loads and flow friction in the the terms of exterior problem. Study of critical heat flows in the rod bundle with the cylindrical fuel element simulators, year 1980

Experimental study of the heat emission in a boiling process in the rod bundles was conducted in the Kyiv Order of Lenin Basic Research Laboratory of the Polytechnic Institute according to Coordination plan of scientific-research works on “Thermo-physics” problematic AS USSR, code (6).

Report contains:

2. Experimental study of the distribution of thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the steam-water flow along the section of heated rod assembly, year 1979.

Report contains results of the experiments in the research of mass flux and steam content distribution between the specific cells of assembly and definition of pressure drop on the heated length of the bundle in the diapason of operating conditions. Comparison of the experimental results obtained in 1987 with the results of the calculations in the program “bundle-2” and its analysis.

3. Study of local heat transfer in the cells of rod assemblies. Development of methods for heat transfer intensification in the measuring channels and channels cooled by single-phase coolant, year 1985.

A comprehensive study of thermal-hydraulic parameters (distribution of the mass flow rate and enthalpy of the cross section, hydraulic resistance, heat-transfer crisis) in a seven-rod assembly with a round displacer and unheated central rod has been conducted. The report provides an overview of literature, description of the test bench and the site, research methods and experimental results obtained in the diapason of certain parameters. 

4. Theoretic and experimental study of local thermal-hydraulic parameters of rod assemblies of rotors’ active zones with single-and two-phase coolant, including accounting methods and methods of heat transfer intensification".

The results of experimental studies of the costs distribution and relative enthalpies of water and steam mixture between the elementary cells of the bundle, as well as the conditions of crisis heat transfer while boiling in rod assembly with distance grids-intensifiers are represented. The experiments were conducted on seven-rod bundle with a central unheated rod, set in a round displacer in a range of operational parameters specific to the RBMK-1500. Data on critical heat loads and the distribution of the flow parameters the along the section of bundle with grating-intensifiers were obtained for the first time. It can be used for processing of cellular heat hydraulic analysis methods for the evaporation channels of nuclear reactors.

5. Development of the computer calculation approximate equations of the specific volume, density, and their mean integral value in the diapason of enthalpies from 100 to 1100 kcal / kg and pressures from 100 to 600 kgf/cm2. 

This paper, which is an extension of previous NTUU “KPI” works , with the help of orthonormal Chebyshev polynomials tabulated values ​​of specific volumes and densities depending on enthalpy at constant pressure and approximated by a single formula in a wide diapasons of enthalpies (100-1100 kcal / kg) and pressures ( 100-600 kgf/cm2). 

Based on these formulas there are expressions for the first derivatives of specific volume and density by enthalpy and mean integral values of the specific volume and density which are recommended for hydraulic calculations of steam generators on a computer.