The Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine was founded on July 17, 1944 on the initiative of the well-known astronomer and geophysicist O.Ya. Orlov (1880—1954), Member of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Since 1975 the post of Director is held by Yaroslav Stepanovich Yatskiv, Member of the Academy of Sciences.
The Observatory is situated 12 km from the centre of Kyiv, in the Golosiiv forest (hence its unofficial name — the Golosiiv Observatory). The geographical coordinates of the Observatory are 2h02m E and 50o21'.9 N, 186 m above sea level.
The principal fields of research of Main Astronomical Observatory NAS of Ukraine are:
- The fundamental, photographic, and stellar astrometry, astrometry of the solar system, selenodesy, and dynamics of the Moon.
- The theory of Earth's rotation, the creation of coordinate systems for the Earth and space.
- Study of physical and evolutionary properties of blue dwarf galaxies with the use of the best astronomical equipment: 6-m telescope of SAO RAS (Russian Federation), Hubble telescope, MMT, etc.
- Modelling of the chemical evolution of irregular and late-type disk galaxies; modelling of the H I supershell formation and evolution in galaxies of different types; modelling of stellar spectra with the NLTE effects taken into account and study of evolutionary variations in the chemical composition of late-type stars; numerical simulations of galaxy formation and evolution.
- Spectral study and investigations of evolutionary and physical properties of stars and stellar objects with the R CrB-type phenomena.
- Study of rapid small-scale variability of stars from observations with a single instrument and simultaneous observations with a system of spaced instruments.
- Building new models of the impulsive energy release and transformation in solar flares; development of the theory of generation of electromagnetic radiation in the solar atmosphere and the magnetosphere of the Earth; studying plasma instabilities on the Sun, in the solar wind and the magnetosphere of the Earth.
- Studies in cosmic ray physics and in the field of cosmic ray interactions with interplanetary medium.
- Investigations of active solar formations (surges, prominences, flares, etc.) and the quiet photosphere.
- Study of physics of planetary atmospheres, as well as optical, dynamical, and kinematic properties of atmospheres and surfaces of planets and their satellites; theory of radiative transfer; astronomical instrument manufacture.
- Physics of comets and infrared astronomy.
- Dedicated to the unique equipment and techniques intended for remote monitoring of planets and the Earth's atmosphere.
Begining with 1991, the Observatory coordinates the activities of Ukrainian institutions in providing the coordinate and time facilities, takes part in the execution of the State Space Programme of Ukraine and the State Ecology Programme.
The Observatory has established close links with many astronomical institutions in Ukraine and other countries. It was the initiator and a participant of international scientific programmes and projects, in particular the construction of the catalogue of faint stars and the photographic survey of the sky, observations of Comet Halley, determination of variations in the global characteristics of the Sun, it also took part in the preparation and realization of space missions (VEGA, PHOBOS, CORONAS, etc.).
By efforts of several generations of astronomers the Observatory turned into a well-known scientific institution with highly skilled staff — one member and two associate members of the Academy of Sciences, 17 Philosophy Doctors, and 54 Candidates of Sciences work at the Observatory. It holds a leading position in some fields of astronomy.
Director: Yaroslav Stepanovich Yatskiv, Member of the Academy of Sciences
Adress: 27 Akademika Zabolotnoho St. 03680 Kyiv, Ukraine
Phone: (+380 44) 526 3110
Fax: (+380 44) 526 2147